Oct 01, 2017
Considerable uncertainty surrounds the impacts of anthropogenic climate change on the composition and structure of Amazon forests. Building upon results from two large-scale ecosystem drought experiments in the eastern Brazilian Amazon that observed increases in mortality rates among some tree species but not others, in this study we investigate the physiological traits underpinning these differential demographic responses. Xylem pressure at 50% conductivity (xylem-P50 ), leaf turgor loss point (TLP), cellular osmotic potential (πo ), and cellular bulk modulus of elasticity (ε), all traits mechanistically linked to drought tolerance, were measured on upper canopy branches and leaves of mature trees from selected species growing at the two drought experiment sites. Each species was placed a priori into one of four plant functional type (PFT) categories: drought-tolerant versus drought-intolerant based on observed mortality rates, and subdivided into early- versus late-successional based on wood density. We tes...
Sep 06, 2017
© Author(s) 2017. Quantitative characterization of soil organic carbon (OC) content is essential due to its significant impacts on surface-subsurface hydrological-Thermal processes and microbial decomposition of OC, which both in turn are important for predicting carbon-climate feedbacks. While such quantification is particularly important in the vulnerable organic-rich Arctic region, it is challenging to achieve due to the general limitations of conventional core sampling and analysis methods, and to the extremely dynamic nature of hydrological-Thermal processes associated with annual freeze-Thaw events. In this study, we develop and test an inversion scheme that can flexibly use single or multiple datasets-including soil liquid water content, temperature and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) data-to estimate the vertical distribution of OC content. Our approach relies on the fact that OC content strongly influences soil hydrological-Thermal parameters and, therefore, indirectly controls the spatiotemp...
Sep 05, 2017
© 2017 Author(s). This work is distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License. Several land biogeochemical models used for studying carbon-climate feedbacks have begun explicitly representing microbial dynamics. However, to our knowledge, there has been no theoretical work on how to achieve a consistent scaling of the complex biogeochemical reactions from microbial individuals to populations, communities, and interactions with plants and mineral soils. We focus here on developing a mathematical formulation of the substrate-consumer relationships for consumer-mediated redox reactions of the form A+B E → products, where products could be, e.g., microbial biomass or bioproducts. Under the quasi-steady-state approximation, these substrate-consumer relationships can be formulated as the computationally difficult full equilibrium chemistry problem or approximated analytically with the dual Monod (DM) or synthesizing unit (SU) kinetics. We find that DM kinetics is scaling inconsistently for reaction...
Sep 05, 2017
Glacial-state greenhouse gas concentrations and Southern Hemisphere climate conditions persisted until ∼17.7 ka, when a nearly synchronous acceleration in deglaciation was recorded in paleoclimate proxies in large parts of the Southern Hemisphere, with many changes ascribed to a sudden poleward shift in the Southern Hemisphere westerlies and subsequent climate impacts. We used high-resolution chemical measurements in the West Antarctic Ice Sheet Divide, Byrd, and other ice cores to document a unique, ∼192-y series of halogen-rich volcanic eruptions exactly at the start of accelerated deglaciation, with tephra identifying the nearby Mount Takahe volcano as the source. Extensive fallout from these massive eruptions has been found >2,800 km from Mount Takahe. Sulfur isotope anomalies and marked decreases in ice core bromine consistent with increased surface UV radiation indicate that the eruptions led to stratospheric ozone depletion. Rather than a highly improbable coincidence, circulation and climate changes e...
Aug 01, 2017
© 2017 International Society for Microbial Ecology All rights reserved. Soil organic matter (SOM) stocks contain nearly three times as much carbon (C) as the atmosphere and changes in soil C stocks may have a major impact on future atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations and climate. Over the past two decades, much research has been devoted to examining the influence of warming on SOM decomposition in topsoil. Most SOM, however, is old and stored in subsoil. The fate of subsoil SOM under future warming remains highly uncertain. Here, by combining a long-term field warming experiment and a meta-analysis study, we showed that warming significantly increased SOM decomposition in subsoil. We also showed that a decade of warming promoted decomposition of subsoil SOM with turnover times of decades to millennia in a tall grass prairie and this effect was largely associated with shifts in the functional gene structure of microbial communities. By coupling stable isotope probing with metagenomics, we found that micr...
Aug 01, 2017
To determine whether longitudinal fetal growth is altered among pregnant women reporting greater perceived stress or more symptoms of depression.This analysis was based on a multicenter longitudinal study of fetal growth. Women were screened at gestational ages of 8 weeks to 13 weeks 6 days for low-risk status and underwent serial sonographic examinations. At each study visit during pregnancy, women were asked to complete the Cohen Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) and Edinburgh Postpartum Depression Survey (EPDS). Growth curves for estimated fetal weight and individual biometric parameters were created by using linear mixed models with cubic splines and compared on the basis of whether women scored 15 or higher on the PSS or 10 or higher on the EPDS either at the start of or at any time during pregnancy.Of the 2334 women enrolled in the study, 2088 (89%) and 2108 (90%) completed the PSS and EPDS, respectively, at least once in all trimesters. The longitudinal growth curves of estimated fetal weight as well as all...
Jul 25, 2017
We study the problem of detecting a structured, low-rank signal matrix corrupted with additive Gaussian noise. This includes clustering in a Gaussian mixture model, sparse PCA, and submatrix localization. Each of these problems is conjectured to exhibit a sharp information-theoretic threshold, below which the signal is too weak for any algorithm to detect. We derive upper and lower bounds on these thresholds by applying the first and second moment methods to the likelihood ratio between these "planted models" and null models where the signal matrix is zero. Our bounds differ by at most a factor of root two when the rank is large (in the clustering and submatrix localization problems, when the number of clusters or blocks is large) or the signal matrix is very sparse. Moreover, our upper bounds show that for each of these problems there is a significant regime where reliable detection is information- theoretically possible but where known algorithms such as PCA fail completely, since the spectrum of the observ...
Jul 01, 2017
The relapse rate for children with juvenile myelomonocytic leukemia (JMML) status post hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) approaches 50% within 5 years. Graft-versus-leukemia (GVL) is thought to play important role in the treatment of JMML. For this reason, careful management of immunosuppressive drugs after HSCT is crucial. This case report demonstrates that rapamycin and GVL represent a viable medical strategy for the management of pediatric patients with JMML who relapse following status post-HSCT.
Jul 01, 2017
© 2017 Elsevier Inc. Purpose Long-term survival of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer is relatively rare. Little is known about quality of life (QOL) and survivorship concerns of these women. Here, we describe QOL of women with advanced-stage ovarian cancer surviving for 8.5 years or longer and compare women with 0–1 recurrence to those with multiple recurrences. Methods Participants (n = 56) recruited from 5 academic medical centers and the Ovarian Cancer Research Fund Alliance completed surveys regarding QOL (FACT-O), mood (CESD), social support (SPS), physical activity (IPAQ-SF), diet, and clinical characteristics. Median survival was 14.0 years (range 8.8–33.3). Results QOL and psychological adjustment of long-term survivors was relatively good, with mean FACT-G scores (multiple recurrences: 80.81 ± 13.95; 0–1 recurrence: 89.05 ± 10.80) above norms for healthy community samples (80.1 ± 18.1). Survivors with multiple recurrences reported more compromised QOL in domains of physical and emotional well-...
Jul 01, 2017
Untreated dental disease remains one of the most prevalent health conditions for children, driven in part by disparities in access to care. This article examines evidence-based workforce strategies being used to facilitate better access to pediatric health services and to improve oral health status and outcomes for children. The workforce strategies described in this article include promising new models in the dental field, with new and existing providers as well as emerging workforce models outside of the dental field. Case studies for some of these workforce strategies are also presented. Future directions and health policy implications are considered.
Jul 01, 2017
A quantum spin Hall (QSH) insulator is a novel two-dimensional quantum state of matter that features quantized Hall conductance in the absence of a magnetic field, resulting from topologically protected dissipationless edge states that bridge the energy gap opened by band inversion and strong spin-orbit coupling. By investigating the electronic structure of epitaxially grown monolayer 1T'-WTe 2 using angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) and first-principles calculations, we observe clear signatures of topological band inversion and bandgap opening, which are the hallmarks of a QSH state. Scanning tunnelling microscopy measurements further confirm the correct crystal structure and the existence of a bulk bandgap, and provide evidence for a modified electronic structure near the edge that is consistent with the expectations for a QSH insulator. Our results establish monolayer 1T'-WTe 2 as a new class of QSH insulator with large bandgap in a robust two-dimensional materials family of transition metal dichalcog...
Jul 01, 2017
The effect of maternal mood disorders on neonatal measurements is not well-defined. The Fetal Growth Studies-Singletons provide a unique opportunity to evaluate the relationship between perceived maternal stress and neonatal growth measurements.The purpose of this study was to determine whether perceived maternal stress during pregnancy is associated with anthropometric measurements in the neonate.This analysis was based on a prospective, multicenter longitudinal study of fetal growth. Women 18-40 years old with a body mass index of 19.0-29.9 kg/m2 were screened at 8+0 to 13+6 weeks gestation for low-risk status associated with optimal fetal growth (eg, healthy, nonsmoking) and underwent serial sonographic examination at 6 study visits throughout gestation. At each study visit, women completed the Cohen's Perceived Stress Survey, which could have a score that ranges from 0-40. We used a latent class trajectory model to identify distinct groupings (ie, classes) of the Perceived Stress Survey trajectories over ...
Jun 27, 2017
A number of analyses, meta-Analyses, and assessments, including those performed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and the International Energy Agency, have concluded that deployment of a diverse portfolio of clean energy technologies makes a transition to a low-carbon-emission energy system both more feasible and less costly than other pathways. In contrast, Jacobson et al. [Jacobson MZ, Delucchi MA, Cameron MA, Frew BA (2015) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 112(49):15060-15065] argue that it is feasible to provide "low-cost solutions to the grid reliability problem with 100% penetration of WWS [wind, water and solar power] across all energy sectors in the continental United States between 2050 and 2055", with only electricity and hydrogen as energy carriers. In this paper, we evaluate that study and find significant shortcomings in the analysis. In particular, we point out that this work used invalid modeli...
Jun 21, 2017
Parental care by fathers, although rare among mmmals, can be essential for the survival and normal development of offspring in biparental species. A growing body of research on biparental rodents has identified several developmental and experiential influences on paternal responsiveness. Some of these factors, such as pubertal maturation, interactions with pups, and cues from a pregnant mate, contribute to pronounced changes in paternal responsiveness across the course of the lifetime in individual males. Others, particularly intrauterine position during gestation and parental care received during postnatal development, can have long-term effects on paternal behavior and contribute to stable differences among individuals within a species. Focusing on five well-studied, biparental rodent species, we review the developmental and experiential factors that have been shown to influence paternal responsiveness, and consider their roles in generating both intra- and inter-individual variation. We also review hormone...
Jun 07, 2017
Wind-driven sand transport generates atmospheric dust, forms dunes, and sculpts landscapes. However, it remains unclear how the flux of particles in aeolian saltation-the wind-driven transport of sand in hopping trajectories-scales with wind speed, largely because models do not agree on how particle speeds and trajectories change with wind shear velocity. We present comprehensive measurements, from three new field sites and three published studies, showing that characteristic saltation layer heights remain approximately constant with shear velocity, in agreement with recent wind tunnel studies. These results support the assumption of constant particle speeds in recent models predicting linear scaling of saltation flux with shear stress. In contrast, our results refute widely used older models that assume that particle speed increases with shear velocity, thereby predicting nonlinear 3/2 stress-flux scaling. This conclusion is further supported by direct field measurements of saltation flux versus shear stress...
Jun 02, 2017
Mineral dust and secondary organic aerosols (SOA) account for a major fraction of atmospheric particulate matter, affecting climate, air quality and public health. How mineral dust interacts with SOA to influence cloud chemistry and public health, however, is not well understood. Here, we investigated the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which are key species of atmospheric and physiological chemistry, in aqueous mixtures of SOA and mineral dust by applying electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectrometry in combination with a spin-trapping technique, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and a kinetic model. We found that substantial amounts of ROS including OH, superoxide as well as carbon- and oxygen-centred organic radicals can be formed in aqueous mixtures of isoprene, α-pinene, naphthalene SOA and various kinds of mineral dust (ripidolite, montmorillonite, kaolinite, palygorskite, and Saharan dust). The molar yields of total radicals were ∼0.02-0.5% at 295 K, which show...
Jun 02, 2017
Anthropogenic and biogenic gas emissions contribute to the formation of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). When present, soot particles from fossil fuel combustion can acquire a coating of SOA. We investigate SOA-soot biogenic-anthropogenic interactions and their impact on ice nucleation in relation to the particles' organic phase state. SOA particles were generated from the OH oxidation of naphthalene, α-pinene, longifolene, or isoprene, with or without the presence of sulfate or soot particles. Corresponding particle glass transition (Tg) and full deliquescence relative humidity (FDRH) were estimated using a numerical diffusion model. Longifolene SOA particles are solid-like and all biogenic SOA sulfate mixtures exhibit a core-shell configuration (i.e. a sulfate-rich core coated with SOA). Biogenic SOA with or without sulfate formed ice at conditions expected for homogeneous ice nucleation, in agreement with respective Tg and FDRH. α-pinene SOA coated soot particles nucleated ice above the homogeneous freezin...
May 25, 2017
Mutations in genes traditionally associated with syndromic retinal disease are increasingly found to cause nonsyndromic inherited retinal degenerations. Mutations in CLN3 are classically associated with juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, a rare neurodegenerative disease with early retinal degeneration and progressive neurologic deterioration, but have recently also been identified in patients with nonsyndromic inherited retinal degenerations. To our knowledge, detailed clinical characterization of such cases has yet to be reported.To provide detailed clinical, electrophysiologic, structural, and molecular genetic findings in nonsyndromic inherited retinal degenerations associated with CLN3 mutations.A multi-institutional case series of 10 patients who presented with isolated nonsyndromic retinal disease and mutations in CLN3. Patient ages ranged from 16 to 70 years; duration of follow-up ranged from 3 to 29 years.Longitudinal clinical evaluation, including full ophthalmic examination, multimodal retinal...
May 17, 2017
Previous studies of cardiovascular disease (CVD) among HIV-infected individuals have been limited by the inability to validate and differentiate atherosclerotic type 1 myocardial infarctions (T1MIs) from other events. We sought to define the incidence of T1MIs and risk attributable to traditional and HIV-specific factors among participants in the North American AIDS Cohort Collaboration on Research and Design (NA-ACCORD), and compare adjusted incidence rates to the general population Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) cohort.We ascertained and adjudicated incident MIs among individuals enrolled in seven NAACCORD cohorts between 1995-2014. We calculated incidence rates (IR), adjusted incidence rate ratios (aIRRs), and 95% confidence intervals ([,]) of risk factors for T1MI using Poisson regression. We compared aIRRs of T1MIs in NA-ACCORD with those from ARIC.Among 29,169 HIV-infected individuals, the IR for T1MIs was 2.57[2.30-2.86] per 1000 person-years, and the aIRR was significantly higher compared ...
May 11, 2017
Inadequate or excessive total gestational weight gain is associated with increased risks of small- and large-for-gestational-age births, respectively, but evidence is sparse regarding overall and trimester-specific patterns of gestational weight gain in relation to these risks. Characterizing the interrelationship between patterns of gestational weight gain across trimesters can reveal whether the trajectory of gestational weight gain in the first trimester sets the path for gestational weight gain in subsequent trimesters, thereby serving as an early marker for at-risk pregnancies.We sought to describe overall trajectories of gestational weight gain across gestation and assess the risk of adverse birthweight outcomes associated with the overall trajectory and whether the timing of gestational weight gain (first vs second/third trimester) is differentially associated with adverse outcomes.We conducted a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort of 2802 singleton pregnancies from 12 US prenatal centers (2009 ...
May 09, 2017
During the Space Telescope and Optical Reverberation Mapping Project (STORM) observations of NGC 5548, the continuum and emission-line variability became de-correlated during the second half of the 6-month long observing campaign. Here we present Swift and Chandra X-ray spectra of NGC 5548 obtained as a part of the campaign. The Swift spectra show that excess flux (relative to a power-law continuum) in the soft X-ray band appears before the start of the anomalous emission-line behavior, peaks during the period of the anomaly, and then declines. This is a model-independent result suggesting that the soft excess is related to the anomaly. We divide the Swift data into on- and off-anomaly spectra to characterize the soft excess via spectral fitting. The cause of the spectral differences is likely due to a change in the intrinsic spectrum rather than being due to variable obscuration or partial covering. The Chandra spectra have lower signal-to-noise ratios, but are consistent with Swift data. Our preferred model...

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