Coupled chemistry-climate models are being increasingly used to tackle the problem of understanding the mechanisms for driving changes in past, present and future atmospheric composition. Given the computational overheads of running these types of models the chemical mechanisms which are used are often chosen for their speed of simulation.
Rapid Arctic warming and sea ice reduction in the Arctic Ocean are widely attributed to anthropogenic climate change. The Arctic warming exceeds the global average warming due to feedbacks that include sea ice reduction and other dynamical and radiative feedbacks. We show that the most prominent annual mean surface and tropospheric warming in the Arctic since 1979 has occurred in northeastern Canada and Greenland.
Hydrologic applications of GPS site-position observations in the Western U.S.
Soil carbon dynamics: global model evaluation, predictions, and new mechanisms
In the 20th century, anthropologists joined natural and physical scientists in using the term “system” to describe spatial arrangements of material, organisms, and their modes of interaction. Since mid-century, this analytic term has become a “native” term in modernized societies. People now recognize themselves as belonging to various kinds of systems: political, economic, sociocultural, industrial, and energy.
Biogenic Organics Coupling of the Land Ecosystem-Atmosphere-Climate System: From Concept to Quantitative Model
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) and ozone are important contributors to the radiative forcing that drives climate change. These two atmospheric constituents are formed in the atmosphere from chemical reactions involving volatile organic compounds (VOC) emitted primarily from terrestrial ecosystems. Both ozone and SOA can directly influence solar radiation and thus change light and temperature at the Earth’s surface.
The Northern Hemisphere sea ice cover has diminished rapidly in recent years and is projected to continue to diminish in the future. The year-to-year retreat of Northern Hemisphere sea ice extent is faster in summer than in winter, which has been identified as one of the most striking features of satellite observations as well as of state-of-the-art climate model projections.