A dissertation based on original research and demonstrating critical judgment, intellectual synthesis, creativity and skill in written communication is required for the Ph.D. degree. The student’s Dissertation Committee will work closely with the student during dissertation research and preparation, and must be unanimous in approval of the final dissertation. The dissertation must summarize the results of original research performed by the student under the supervision of a faculty member of the ESS program. The criterion of acceptability of a dissertation is that its contents be judged by the committee as suitable for publication in a peer-reviewed scientific journal of high editorial standards. The dissertation may be a compilation of published papers or manuscripts accepted for publication, so long as a major proportion of the material has been produced independently by the candidate, the format and content are approved by the Dissertation Committee, and University requirements for style, format, and appearance are met.